Low Emission Development Strategies (LEDS)

This site contains a background reading list of key documents, this list is non-exhaustive and will be updated throughout the programme.

Low Emission Development Strategies (LEDS)


thematic factsheet LEDS thumbnailTo ensure a comon understanding of terms, the LECB Global Support Unit has developed a series of thematic factsheets on GHG Inventory Systems, NAMAs, LEDS, and MRV. These can be used for awareness-raising with key stakeholders on key terms, or serve as a basis for more detailed and specific national factsheets.




Barriers Thumbnail The LECB Programme Global Support Unit is happy to share two thematic studies, Barriers to Developing National Mitigation Strategies and Actions in Developing Countries: Lessons Learned from the UNDP’s Low Emission Capacity Building Programme, and Mobilising Private-Sector Engagement in LEDS and NAMAs: Lessons Learned from the UNDP’s Low Emission Capacity Building Programme. Both studies explore the barriers and opportunities within LEDS and NAMA design and feature first-hand experience from LECB National Projects.



LEDS Global Partnership guidanceLEDS/INDC/NAMA connection points are elaborated in this LEDS Global Partnership presentation.




GPA ThumbnailGlobal Good Practice Analysis on LEDS, NAMAs and MRV
The LECB Programme is pleased to present The Global Good Practice Analysis (GPA) - a collection of 21 examples of mitigation-related good practice worldwide that demonstrate how LEDS, NAMAs and MRV systems are being effectively designed and implemented across a range of national contexts. The GPA is a joint initiative between the LECB Programme and the International Partnership on Mitigation and MRV and aims to foster peer-learning across countries.

See the 21 case studies (Bhutan and Lebanon feature LECB specific activities) and read about the background and methodology, success factors, conclusions and lessons learned, and the criteria applied.


LEDS template thumbnailASIA LEDS Forum 2013: Putting LEDS Into Practice | Skills Training for LEDS Practitioners Facilitating The LEDS Process
Working group learning objective: Through a mix of presentations, plenary discussions, and application of a guidance template, participants will elaborate a Terms of Reference/action plan that is tailored to their own national circumstances. Participants will be empowered with the knowledge to elaborate a national workplan for initiating a LEDS in their own country.



Cover UNDP LEDS 6 smallUNDP (2011): Preparing Low-Emission Climate-Resilient Development Strategies (Executive Summary)
This report serves as the Executive Summary to a series of manuals and guidebooks that UNDP is offering in support of low-emission climate-resilient development strategies (LECRDS), based on the experience and information generated by UNDP's work in more than 140 countries. This guidebook is intended to enable project managers, UNDP Country Offices, and developing country government decision makers to acquaint themselves with a variety of methodologies in support of the preparation of LECRDS.


Cover UNDP How To Guide 7 smallUNDP (2010): How-to Guide: Low-emission Development Strategies and Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions: Eastern Europe and CIS
Originally developed for Eastern Europe and CIS countries, the handbook provides a step-wise approach to help policy makers and technical experts determine opportunities for low-emission development and design national LEDS or NAMAs in their respective countries. In English and Russian.



Cover GIZ LEDS 8 smallGIZ (2011): Factsheet Low-Emission Development Strategy (LEDS)
This factsheet provides a brief summary of Low-Emission Development Strategies (LEDS), covering the following aspects: "What is a LEDS" - essential elements; Aims and purposes of LEDS; Process of developing a LEDS and necessary resources; Relation between LEDS and NAMAs; Key success factors and pitfalls; Practical examples.

Cover Climateworks 9 smallClimate Works/ECF (2009): Low Carbon Growth Plans. Advancing Good Practice
Climate Works and the European Climate Foundation have analysed several LEDS and distilled from them certain elements that need to be included in LEDS as well as characteristics and success factors in the development of LEDS. Available in English, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, and Mandarin.




Cover OECD 10 smallOECD (2010): Low-Emission Development Strategies (LEDS): Technical, Institutional and Policy Lessons
This paper outlines how the concept of LEDS has evolved in the climate policy discourse and explores how it could usefully add to the large number of existing strategies, action plans, and reporting documents that are already available. The paper outlines gaps that LEDS could fill, the elements it could contain, and how LEDS can be prepared to ensure that they are effective and efficient in delivering their intended goals.


Cover ECN 11 smallECN (2011): Paving the Way for Low-Carbon Development Strategies
This analysis from the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) considers what are the prerequisites for developing an effective LCDS, and what can a country do if these prior conditions are not (entirely) met from the start? Included are case studies from Ghana and Indonesia, as well as a step-wise approach to undertaking a LEDS.




LECRDS in LEDs IIED thumbnailIIED (2013): Low-carbon resilient development in the least developed countries
Low-carbon resilience is an agenda that tackles reducing carbon emissions while simultaneously building climate resilience and supporting development in a supposed win-win policy agenda. This approach is linked to green growth policies, low carbon development and low emission development strategies and is also supported by negotiations at the UNFCCC that are seeking to find linkages between these agendas. Although LDCs are responsible for less than 5% of global GHG emissions; nine of them have developed plans to bring together these three issues into one single agenda.


Cover OECD fossil fuel subsidy docOECD (2011): Inventory of estimated budgetary support and tax expenditures for fossil fuels
Removing inefficient subsidies would raise national revenues and reduce greenhouse-gas emissions, according to OECD and IEA analyses. The G20 leaders in 2009 agreed to phase out subsidies that "encourage wasteful consumption, reduce our energy security, impede investment in clean energy sources and undermine efforts to deal with the threat of climate change". OECD and IEA data and analysis are contributing to the follow-up on this commitment by the G20.



Nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) are concrete initiatives that shift a technology or sector onto a low-carbon trajectory. A Low-Emission Development Strategy (LEDS) outlines the intended overall economic, energy, and emissions trajectory for a country and helps to identify trigger points for policy intervention. continue


Measuring, reporting and verification (MRV) should be an essential component of any mitigation action. continue

GHG Inventory System

A high-quality national GHG inventory system provides a foundation for mitigation actions and MRV. continue