March 2012 – February 2015

Implementing Agency

Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency / Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs

Programme Area

Public and Private/Industry


LEDS, NAMAs, MRV, MAPs, Mitigation Action Plan (industry), GHG Emissions Inventory Support Program


Public: Energy: renewable and energy efficiency. Transport: innovative transport facilities
Private/Industry: Cement, fertilizers, iron & steel

Country Context

Egypt imageAccording to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Egypt was identified as one of the most vulnerable regions to sea level rise. Sea level rise may threaten the densely populated River Nile Delta which includes extensive infrastructure and fertile cultivated lands.vii GHG emissions per thousand US$ of Egypt GDP went down from 3.32 ton CO2-eq to 1.98 ton CO2-eq, indicating the use of low carbon activities and a decoupling of GDP from emission levels. The assessment of GHG emissions for Egypt shows that the energy sector, including transport, is the primary contributor to GHG emissions, followed by agriculture, industrial processes and the waste sector. Both the Initial & Second National Communication have presented a number of mitigation and adaptation measures to climate change, in the course of playing an effective role in achieving the objectives of the UNFCCC.viii


Egypt framed its vision for the future of energy in the National Energy Policy, which promotes the enhanced use of natural gas, an energy price adjustment and removal of subsidies, as well as energy conservation and more efficient energy use. The strategic target is to increase the use of renewable energy (mainly solar, wind and biomass) to supply 20% of national electricity demand by 2020 and to reduce 10% of future energy consumption through energy conservation and energy efficiency. To reach these goals, the National Low-Carbon Economy Strategy aims to re-focus the country's economy towards investment in clean technologies and natural infrastructure.ix

The country participates in the Low-Emission Capacity-Building Project to advance these considerations in the areas of the public sector as well as industry.

Planned Outputs of the Project

The proposed project outcomes are:

Area 1: Public Sector (i.e. executive administrative entities that are public)
  • Outcome 1: Up to 6 detailed NAMAs formulated in the key sectors of energy and transport within the context of national development priorities.
  • Outcome 2: LEDS formulated within the context of national development priorities.
  • Outcome 3: MRV systems have been designed to support implementation and evaluation of associated NAMAs and LEDS.
Area 2: Industry (i.e. industrial entities that are either public or private)
  • Outcome 4: Mitigation action plans have been established in the cement and fertilizer industriesx, including up to 4 full-documented mitigation projects developed.
  • Outcome 5: MRV systems have been designed to support implementation and evaluation of mitigation action plans in the cement and fertilizer industries.

While the focus in the public sector is on formulation of effective NAMAs in the energy and transport sectors and a LEDS, attention will also be paid to improving MRV systems. This will be done by establishing appropriate indicators for monitoring mitigation actions, as well as by creating the conditions necessary to support future investment in mitigation measures. The focus will be on establishing scopes, metrics/indicators, reporting mechanisms, verification mechanisms, and time frames. An improved MRV system will take into account whether NAMAs are implemented autonomously, through support from developed countries, or through an international crediting mechanism. Suggested criteria for the MRV systems include: credibility, cost effectiveness, timeliness, and a simple and clear procedure which provides enough flexibility for a wide range of mitigation actions.

In the field of industry capacity building, national and regional policies translate into specific requirements for private and/or public industry, which trigger performance improvements in production processes. This component will focus on the aims and needs of at least two selected industries (i.e., cement and fertilizer, and possibly iron & steel at a later stage), and the intent is to encourage industry to uptake and scale up mitigation actions. Work will start from the industry's perspective of enhancing profitability by means of energy efficiency improvements and cost savings. During the inception phase, contacts will be made with programme representatives of the EU and UNDP and industrial organizations in the country in order to identify high priority mitigation actions and potential domestic barriers.xi


The Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency and the Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs will oversee the project, coordinating the input of the broad range of relevant stakeholders in Egypt, including key line Ministries, councils and agencies, academia, civil society and the private sector.xii

Egypt organigram

vii Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2011): Third Assessment Report.
viii Second National Communication 2010
ix Workshop presentation by National Project Focal Point Berlin November 2011
x The iron & steel industry, which ranked as third priority, will also be engaged if the project budget and duration allows for its inclusion at a later stage.
xi Project Document
xii Project Document
Photo credit: UNDP

National Stats

Arab States
Total Area
1,001,450 sq kmi
83,688,164 (2011)ii
GDP per capita
$6,600 (2011)iii
Population below national poverty line
20% (2005)iv
CO2 emission estimates per capita
2.31 metric tons (2007)v


Country Documents

National Communications

Initial National Communication (July 1999)

Second National Communication (June 2010)vi

Inauguration Workshop:

10 February 2014, Cairo

download workshop material

i See CIA Factbook https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/eg.html
ii Ibid.
iii Ibid.
iv See CIA Factbook https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/eg.html
v See UN Stats: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/environment/air_co2_emissions.htm
vi See UNFCCC: http://unfccc.int/national_reports/non-annex_i_natcom/items/2979.php