July 2011 – June 2014
In 2007, Costa Rica had 4,444,922 inhabitants, the country saw an average annual population growth of 2% since 2000. The sectors that contributed most to economic growth in 2006 were industry (32.5%); transport (18.9%); commerce (8.8%); and agriculture (14%). In 2006, energy use was greatest among the transport sector (55% of total energy consumption), followed by the industrial (20%), residential (11%), services and commercial (10%) and agricultural (4%) sectors.vi
In 2006, 93.6% of electricity came from clean sources (hydraulic, geothermal and wind), with a small share (6.3%) of electricity produced through thermal power plants. The country has become a leader in Central America on clean energy. Of the total fuel use, gasoline and diesel use amounted to 75.3%, of which 98% went to vehicle transportation.vii
Costa Rica is one of the frontrunners in addressing climate change, with a comprehensive national framework in place, including the National Climate Change Strategy, which is the national policy to reach carbon neutrality by 2021, accompanied by the medium-term Climate Change Programme (2009-2015), the National Development Plan (2011-2014) and the Presidential Initiative Peace with Nature. The country also developed NAMAs, which will focus on the transport, energy, forestry and waste sectors.ix
The country joined the Low-Emission Capacity Building Project to support its activities on the National Climate Change Strategy by developing the national GHG inventory further, formulating NAMAs and developing MRV systems, all in selected sectors.
The project's main goal is to help and support the low carbon transformation, in line with the national objective of becoming carbon neutral by 2021, in two specific sectors, such as livestock and transport. Specific results expected are:
Transport and Livestock:
The project will be implemented under the strategic leadership of the Ministry of Environment and Energy (MINAET) and its Department of Climate Change (DCC). The DCC's functions include coordinating the Technical Secretariat of the Inter-ministerial Council on Climate Change, forum which has broad representation of the executive branch. The integration of project activities with other public policies is ensured through this Council, which shall be kept informed during scheduled sessions and committee work.xi
vii Second National Communication 2009
viii Second National Communication 2009
ix Project Document
x Project Document
xi Project Document
Photo credit: UNDP
May 2013, San José
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i See CIA Factbook https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cs.html
iv See CIA Factbook https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cs.html
v See UN Stats: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/environment/air_co2_emissions.htm
vi See UNFCCC: http://unfccc.int/national_reports/non-annex_i_natcom/items/2979.php
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The project’s main goal is to help and support the low carbon transformation, in line with the national objective of becoming carbon neutral by 2021, in two specific sectors, such as livestock and transport. Specific results expected are:
Result 1: Development, in association with the IMN, of the GHG National Inventory in the transport and livestock sectors
· Activity 1: Workshop to validate the objectives, scope and other aspects of the national transport survey.
· Activity 2: Conduction of National transport survey.
· Activity 3: Workshop on survey results and impact on systematization of transport sector inventories.
· Activity 4: Incorporation of the results in the broad stakeholder process.
· Activity 5: Integration of inputs that strengthen the transport inventory in the GHG National Inventory.
· Activity 1: Capacity development for the systematization of emissions calculation of the livestock sector.
· Activity 2: Develop capacities for a periodical characterization of the livestock activity.
· Activity 3: Training in techniques to determine emission factors in the livestock sector.
· Activity 4: Result validation workshop on the national emission factors in livestock.
· Activity 5: Incorporation of national emission factors into GHG National Inventory.
Result 2: Formulation of nationally appropriate mitigation actions (including NAMAs) in the livestock and transport sector
Transport and Livestock:
· Activity 1: Establish criteria to select sound mitigation actions.
· Activity 2: Build a GHG reference scenario.
· Activity 3: Build mitigation scenarios with measures proposed.
· Activity 4: Development of marginal abatement cost curves.
· Activity 5: Integration of social and development co-benefit analysis.
· Activity 6: Identification of barriers and proposal of solutions for the selected measures.
· Activity 7: Consultation workshops with interested stakeholders.
· Activity 8: Financing structure proposal for the prioritized measures.
· Activity 9: Policy instruments proposal to encourage investment of the prioritized measures.
· Activity 10: Workshops, consultations and validation with all stakeholders after each process stage.
· Activity 11: Formulation of NAMA proposals for livestock and transport sector.
· Activity 1: Pilot Implementation of the NAMA proposal for the livestock sector.
· Activity 2: Demonstrative field activities on emission reductions, in association with private sector.
· Activity 3: Results compilation of the pilot NAMAs.
· Activity 4: Progress workshops, lessons learned, identification of barriers and recovery measures.
Result 3: Development of MRV systems for prioritized sectors
· Activity 1: Assessment of monitoring requirements of the proposed NAMA measures.
· Activity 2: Integration of monitoring parameters to account for NAMA co-benefits.
· Activity 3: Design of the base concept for the MRV system for the transport sector.
· Activity 4: Development of MRV system for the livestock sector.[i]
[i] Project Document